Phosphorylation refers to the biochemical process of adding phosphate molecules to certain organic compounds. BOC RNA has extensive experience in the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides, with exclusive equipment, reagents and expertise to ensure the high quality of each oligonucleotide. We specialize in providing a wide range of DNA/RNA modification services, including phosphorylation.

What is Phosphorylation

As one of the important biochemical reactions, phosphorylation, simply put, is the addition of phosphate molecules/phosphate groups to organic compounds, making them useful for many functions of organisms.

Phosphorylation reactions are particularly important in biology because several biological processes rely on such reactions as apoptosis, inflammation, metabolic regulation, subcellular transport and proliferation.

Phosphorylation of mammals occurs on the side chains of three amino acids:

  • Tyrosine
  • Serine
  • Threonine
  • Histidine

5' phosphorylation is added via B-cyanoethyl chemistry to the sugar ring at the 5' end of the primer, not the last base. It can be used for splicing, cloning and gene construction as well as ligase-catalyzed ligation reactions. It is also used to block DNA polymerase-catalyzed DNA strand extension reactions in experiments related to exonuclease resistant digestion.

Phosphorylation and dephosphorylationFig. 1 Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation (Chaudhari M, 2021)

Purpose of Phosphorylation

Phosphorylation is a reversible reaction. Most enzymes and receptors are activated and inactivated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation (as opposed to the phosphorylation process), respectively. Phosphorylation of enzymes acts as an on/off switch, altering specific activity or function.

The phosphate molecule itself is a very important element in biomolecules. Researchers have found that phosphorylation of a large number of metabolites (intermediates or end products of metabolism) occurs, leading to the formation of the corresponding phosphates in cells.

    • 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate is a chemical used as a messenger for specific hormone signals
    • Protein degradation
    • Regulation of enzyme inhibition
    • Glycolytic function
    • Signaling between proteins
    • Regulation of chemical reactions that require energy

Types of Phosphorylation

Several molecules can undergo phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. The three most common forms of phosphorylation are:

  • Glucose phosphorylation
  • Protein phosphorylation
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid phosphorylation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation

We Provide the Following Backbone Modifications

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  • Professional competence - BOC RNA's team of experts with extensive experience in oligonucleotide chemical synthesis
  • High-quality products - Highly stable oligonucleotides suitable for different downstream applications and research purposes
  • State-of-the-art equipment - advanced technology platform for different production scales and purification strategies
  • Flexible composition specifications - multiple specifications such as OD, nmol, mg, g, etc., for mass customization
  • One-on-one Service - real-time technical guidance from a team of experienced experts
  • Strict Quality Control- strict implementation of various quality control measures
  • More affordable options - we offer competitive prices across the industry.

The expert team at BOC RNA has extensive experience in the synthesis and modification of custom oligonucleotides. We are committed to providing end-to-end customized DNA/RNA modification services, from consulting, DNA/RNA oligonucleotide design, production and purification, to quality control and delivery. Please contact us for more details.


  1. Chaudhari M; et al. DTL-DephosSite: Deep Transfer Learning Based Approach to Predict Dephosphorylation Sites. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 Jun 24; 9: 662983.
* Only for research. Not suitable for any diagnostic or therapeutic use.
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