tRNA Expression Analysis

tRNA plays a crucial role in cellular translation in living organisms, and its expression and mutations have have been associated with certain diseases, including neuropathology and cancer development. It is important to monitor and determine changes in tRNA abundance and modification during biological processes. In recent years, quantification of tRNA gene expression has also received increasing attention due to its importance since it exert different roles depending on expression and post-transcriptional modification. BOC Sciences provides comprehensive tRNA expression analysis services to determine changes in tRNA expression by analyzing tRNA expression levels at the gene, codon, and amino acid levels.

Evaluation of differential tRNA gene expression.Fig 1. Evaluation of differential tRNA gene expression. (Torres AG, 2019)

Application of Our tRNA Expression Analysis

  • Determination of changes in tRNA expression.
  • Analysis of the expression changes at tRNA, codon, and amino acid levels.
  • Analyze codon usage across the whole genome.

Our Services

BOC Sciences provides a variety of services to quantify tRNA expression levels, including RT-qPCR, which accurately measures tRNA abundance to determine tRNA expression patterns; tRNA microarray, which achieves codon-level resolution by identifying tRNA anticodon loops thus determining gene expression of tRNAs; tRNA-sequencing methods, which provide rich data and information for identifying and validating differentially expressed tRNAs.

Reverse Transcription-Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR)

At BOC Sciences, we offer classic RT-qPCR services to quantify changes in the abundance of individual tRNAs to determine whether cells can selectively regulate protein expression by altering tRNA abundance.

  • System extraction, purification and quantification.

Total RNA extraction, DNA digestion, first-strand cDNA synthesis, RNA digestion, Reverse transcription.

  • Illumina qPCR readouts.

Multivariate analysis of tRNA expression pattern by employing t-SNE and K-means clustering methods.

tRNA Microarray Services

Aiming to predict the regulation of gene expression, we introduce a microarray method based on fluorescent dye labeling technology to quantify tRNA in the samples. BOC Sciences provides tRNA microarray services to reliably quantify tRNA levels in human samples, helping to figure out the relationship between tRNA abundance and codon distribution. The probe used for our tRNA arrays are designed based on the genomic tRNA database and BOC Sciences’ own database. Here is our microarray-based tRNA analysis process:

  • Sample preparation.
  • Extract the total RNA and determine the RNA quality.
  • Reverse transcribe the RNA samples into cDNA to build a library
  • Label the tRNA sequence with suitable fluorescent dye.
  • Use prefabricated or custom printed microarrays to detect and collect the data.

tRNA Sequencing Services

BOC Sciences offers tRNA-seq service to generate full-length tRNA sequences with modification data for assessing differences in relative tRNA expression across treatments, tissues or subcellular fractions, our RNA-seq service has higher sensitivity to detect a wider range of expression.

  • Adapter ligation of biological tRNA samples.
  • cDNA synthesis.
  • Sequencing libraries constructions completed through PCR amplification.

Analysis of tRNA Expression

  • Delivery of expression profile of tRNAs.
  • Identification of the differentially expressed tRNAs.
  • Visualization of the expression signatures of tRNAs via using the scatter plots, volcano plots, and hierarchical clustering analysis.

BOC Sciences Features and Advantages

  • Provide customized services by preparing a variety of tools for studying tRNA expression.
  • Reliable, professional and rapid detection process.
  • Professional bioinformatics team that enables to provid reliable quality data for gene expression analysis.


  1. Torres AG; et al. Differential expression of human tRNA genes drives the abundance of tRNA-derived fragments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019. 116(17): 8451-8456.
* Only for research. Not suitable for any diagnostic or therapeutic use.
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