What is an exosome?
Exosomes are small, single-membrane, secreted vesicles (40 nm to 100 nm) released from cells upon the fusion of a multivesicular body (MVB) containing intraluminal vesicles with the plasma membrane. Exosomes contain many membrane-associated protein complexes. Exosomes contain RNA and can transfer these extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in functional form to other cells and tissues.
Figure 1. Exosomes
Exosomes as drug delivery system
Exosomes are becoming an important tool and widely used for drug delivery nowadays. They can deliver therapies into cells that can hardly reach by other methods. siRNAs can be transfected into exosomes for delivery to target the cells and tissues. The key advantage is that surface expression of CD47 and other endogenous signaling ligands on exosomes can increase half-life by inhibiting MPS clearance and improving cellular internalization.
Exosomes have successfully delivered anti-KRAS siRNA against pancreatic cancers in mice, significantly increasing survival. Exosomes can cause a less toxic immune response in humans. However, exosomes face big challenges in scale-up production and particle heterogeneity. Codiak Biosciences is now undertaking preclinical study of exosome-loaded siRNAs for autoimmune targets and immune-oncology in macrophages.
What we provide?
We provide siRNA-loaded exosomes. We can design and synthesis the siRNA based on the target gene and then loaded it into the exosomes. If you already have a candidate siRNA drug, we will help with preparing RNA-loaded exosomes.
How we do?
- siRNA design/synthesis/purification/characteristics
- Transfection of siRNA in a stable host cell to generate targeted exosomes
- Isolation and purification of siRNA-loaded exosomes
- Characterization and safety evaluation of exosomes (virus, endotoxin, bacteria, mycoplasma, etc.)
Why choose us？
- High quality raw materials
- Free design
- Experienced experts
- Strict QA and QC
- Advanced analytical equipment
- Professional technical support
- 1 on 1 customer service
- Competitive price
- Fast delivery
Exosomes related resources
Status of Drug Development Based on Exosomes
- Michiel Pegtel and Stephen J. Gould. Exosomes. Annual Review of Biochemistry. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-013118-111902
- Ratajczak J, Miekus K, Kucia M, Zhang J,Reca R, et al. 2006. Embryonic stem cell-derived microvesicles reprogram hematopoietic progenitors: evidence for horizontal transfer of mRNA and protein delivery. Leukemia 20:847–56
- Valadi H, Ekstrom K, Bossios A, Sjostrand M, Lee JJ, Lotvall JO. 2007. Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells. Nat. Cell Biol. 9:654–59
- Skog J,Wurdinger T, van Rijn S, Meijer DH,Gainche L, et al. 2008. Glioblastoma microvesicles transport RNA and proteins that promote tumour growth and provide diagnostic biomarkers. Nat. Cell Biol. 10:1470–76
- Pegtel DM,Cosmopoulos K, Thorley-LawsonDA, van Eijndhoven MA,Hopmans ES, et al. 2010. Functional delivery of viral miRNAs via exosomes. PNAS.107:6328–33
- Alvarez-Erviti, L., Seow, Y., Yin, H., Betts, C., Lakhal, S., & Wood, M. J. A. (2011). Delivery of siRNA to the mouse brain by systemic injection of targeted exosomes. Nature Biotechnology. 29(4), 341–345.
- Kamerkar, S., LeBleu, V. S., Sugimoto, H., Yang, S., Ruivo, C. F., Melo, S. A., … Kalluri, R. (2017). Exosomes facilitate therapeutic targeting of oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer. Nature.
- El-Andaloussi, S., Lee, Y., Lakhal-Littleton, S., Li, J., Seow, Y., Gardiner, C., Wood, M. J. A. (2012). Exosome-mediated delivery of siRNA in vitro and in vivo. Nature Protocols. 7(12), 2112–2126.