As a novel small non-coding RNA (sncRNA), the role of piwi interacting RNA (piRNA) in the regulation of gene expression is receiving increasing attention, with potential and broad medical research perspectives. With GMP-grade RNA supply capabilities, BOC Sciences can provide customized piRNA synthesis services to support exploratory discoveries and expanded research in the pharmaceutical field.
Figure.1 Proposed piRNA structure, with the 3' end 2'-O-methylation.
With the intensive research on RNA interference (RNAi), the diversity of regulatory small RNA has been growing and is mainly categorized into miRNA, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and piRNA. miRNA and siRNA biosynthesis usually relies on RNase III type enzymes to convert their double-stranded RNA precursors into functional small RNA. piRNA, by contrast, is derived from single-stranded RNA and therefore requires a high level of RNA synthesis and is therefore a good candidate for the pharmaceutical industry. In contrast, piRNA is derived from single-stranded RNA and therefore requires an alternative processing engine. Piwi interacting RNA (piRNA) is a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, with lengths of 26-31 nucleotides, that bind and interact with PIWI proteins. Originally, piRNA was found in germ cells and is involved not only in the regulation of the reproductive system but also influences gene expression in somatic cells. piRNA is named for its association with the Piwi family of proteins, a subfamily of Argonaute proteins involved in the formation of the RISC complex during RNAi.
Transposon silencing is a major function of piRNAs. Transposons, also known as jumping genes, are basic units present on genes that can be replicated and displaced autonomously. piRNAs play a role in RNA silencing through the formation of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The complex targets and binds to complementary sequences on the transposon RNA molecule, resulting in degradation or inhibition of the transposon RNA. piRNA plays a role in RNA silencing by forming the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC).
The ping-pong cycle is a mechanism for piRNA production in which piRNA biosynthesis is accompanied by the cleavage of complementary transcripts from transposons and piRNA clusters. The ping-pong cycle generates pairs of piRNA including "initiating" piRNA and "responding" piRNA. The ping-pong cycle is initiated by shearing of the precursor transcript by the "initiating" piRNA bound to the PIWI protein, followed by cleavage of PIWI to yield a 5'-monophosphate fragment that serves as a pre-precursor to the piRNA (pre-pre-piRNA). The resulting 5'-cleaved fragment is referred to as piRNA precursor (pre-piRNA), whose 3'-end can be further modified and sheared to mature length by the 3',5'-nucleic acid exonuclease Trimmer, while the methyltransferase Hen1 catalyzes the 2'-O-methylation of the piRNA, which becomes the "response" piRNA.
Figure 2. The piRNA Ping-Pong cycling pathway mechanism.
BOC Sciences provides high-purity piRNAs based on continuously optimized RNA synthesis technologies to support basic research and pharmaceutical applications in the field of RNAi. piRNAs are a relatively new field of research, and there is still a lot of room for the development of medical applications for piRNAs. BOC Sciences is eager to be your partner and provide new ideas for your projects.
Figure 3. Workflow for piRNA discovery.
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