Synthetic DNA/RNA are important research tools in therapeutic DNA/RNA area.
There are four major chemical synthetic methods of DNA/RNA:
In which, phosphitetriester method is commonly used for DNA/RNA solid-phase synthesis nowadays.
In phosphitetriester method, DNA/RNA chemical synthesis is carried out by a stepwise addition, the synthesis process contains four chemical reactions:
Figure 1. Oligonucleotide synthesis from phosphoramidites.
As DNA/RNA contain at least one -OH group, the introduction of the suitable protecting groups enables the oligo to convert to the respective phosphoramidite, and then it can couple the latter. Therefore, phosphoramidite coupling reaction makes phophoramidites the most important building blocks in DNA/RNA synthesis.