1. DSPE-PEG polymers for improving pulmonary absorption of poorly absorbed macromolecules in rats and relative mechanism
Yang Gao, Ya Sun, Guangli Liao, Hailong Zhang, Qingzhi Long. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2021 Feb;47(2):337-346. doi: 10.1080/03639045.2021.1879837.
This study aims to investigate the potential of DSPE-PEG polymers (DSPE-PEG-OH and DSPE-PEG-SH) on improving absorption of poorly absorbable macromolecules via intrapulmonary administration and underlying mechanism. In situ pulmonary absorption experiments were performed to investigate the absorption of model compounds after intrapulmonary administration to rats. The local membrane damage induced by these DSPE-PEG polymers were evaluated based on morphological observation of lung tissues and measurement of biological toxic markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) postintrapulmonary delivery of DSPE-PEG polymers to rats. The underlying enhancement mechanism of these polymers was explored by investigating their effects on the pulmonary membrane fluidity and gene expression of tight junction associated proteins with fluorescence polarization and western blotting, respectively. Intrapulmonary delivery of these DSPE-PEG polymers significantly enhanced absorptions of poorly absorbed model drugs and did not induce serious damage to the pulmonary membranes of rats. Mechanistic studies demonstrated unaffected pulmonary membrane fluidity and up-regulated expression levels of tight junction-associated proteins by DSPE-PEG polymers, thus indicating that paracellular pathways might be included in the underlying mechanisms by which DSPE-PEG polymers exerted their enhancing actions on drug absorption. These findings suggested that these DSPE-PEG polymers are potential for promoting absorptions of poorly absorbable macromolecules with no evidence of damage to the local pulmonary membranes of rats.Novelty statementIn this study, DSPE-PEG-OH and DSPE-PEG-SH polymers, two DSPE-PEG2000 conjugates with different terminal groups demonstrated significant promoting effects on the absorption of poorly absorbed macromolecular drugs after intrapulmonary delivery to rats, and did not induce serious damage to the pulmonary membranes of rats. These DSPE-PEG polymers could statistically downregulate expression levels of tight junction-associated proteins (ZO-1 and occludin), indicating the underlying mechanism by which these polymers exerted their absorption enhancing actions through pulmonary epithelial paracellular pathways. Thus, this study exhibited prospective potential of these DSPE-PEG polymers in developing into dosage forms with the aim to improve the poor bioavailability of some poorly absorbed macromolecular drugs.
2. DSPE-PEG Modification of α-Conotoxin TxID
Weinan Zhao, Yang Xiong, Dongting Zhangsun, Sulan Luo. Mar Drugs. 2019 Jun 8;17(6):342. doi: 10.3390/md17060342.
In order to improve stability of a peptide marine drug lead, α-conotoxin TxID, we synthesized and modified TxID at the N-terminal with DSPE-PEG-NHS by a nucleophilic substitution reaction to prepare the DSPE-PEG-TxID for the first time. The reaction conditions, including solvent, ratio, pH, and reaction time, were optimized systematically and the optimal one was reacted in dimethyl formamide at pH 8.2 with triethylamine at room temperature for 120 h. The in vitro stabilities in serum, simulated gastric juice, and intestinal fluid were tested, and improved dramatically compared with TxID. The PEG-modified peptide was functionally tested on α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The DSPE-PEG-TxID showed an obvious inhibition effect on α3β4 nAChR. All in all, the PEG modification of TxID was improved in stability, resistance to enzymatic degradation, and may prolong the half-life in vivo, which may pave the way for the future application in smoking cessation and drug rehabilitation, as well as small cell lung cancer.
3. DSPE-PEG: a distinctive component in drug delivery system
Jing Che, Chukwunweike I Okeke, Zhong-Bo Hu, Jing Xu. Curr Pharm Des. 2015;21(12):1598-605. doi: 10.2174/1381612821666150115144003.
1, 2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-Poly(ethylene glycol) (DSPE- PEG) is a widely used phospholipids-polymer conjugate in drug delivery applications. It is a biocompatible, biodegradable and amphiphilic material which can also be functionalized with various biomolecules for specific functions. With the emerging interest in use of nanocarriers for therapeutic drug delivery and imaging DSPE-PEG has become a very useful material for the formulation of these nanocarriers for achieving prolonged blood circulation time, improved stability and enhanced encapsulation efficiency. This review will focus on the relationships between the structure of DSPEPEG and its noticeable effects on these nanocarriers' properties, and the recent progress on the development of DSPE-PEG and its derivatives in delivery systems.